GLOSSARY

Acid-free Paper
Papermade from pulp containing little or no acid so it resists deterioration from age. Also called alkaline paper, archival paper, neutral pH paper, permanent paper and thesis paper.

Artwork
All original copy, including type, photos and illustrations, intended for printing. Also called art.

Basis Weight
In the United Kingdom and Europe for the ISO paper sizes, the weight, in grams, of one square meter of paper.

Bind
Usually in the book arena, but not exclusively, the joining of leafs or signatures together with either wire, glue or other means.

Bleed
Printing that extends to the edge of a sheet or page after trimming.

Blind Image
Image debossed, embossed or stamped, but not printed with ink or foil.

Board Paper
General term for paper over 200gsm that is commonly used for products such as file folders, displays and post cards. Also called paperboard.

Bond paper
Category of paper commonly used for writing, printing and photocopying. Also called business paper, communication paper, correspondence paper and writing paper.

Book Paper
Category of paper suitable for books, magazines, catalogs, advertising and general printing needs. Book paper is divided into uncoated paper (also called offset paper), coated paper (also called art paper, enamel paper, gloss paper and slick paper) and text paper.

Border
The decorative design or rule surrounding matter on a page.

Caliper

  1. Thickness of paper or other substrate expressed in thousandths of an inch (mils or points), pages per inch (ppi), thousandths of a millimeter (microns) or pages per centimeter (ppc). (2) Device on a sheetfed press that detects double sheets or on a binding machine that detects missing signatures or inserts.

Chalking
Deterioration of a printed image caused by ink that absorbs into paper too fast or has long exposure to sun, and wind making printed images look dusty. Also called crocking.

CMYK
Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black), the four process colors

Coated Paper
Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that improves reflectivity and ink holdout. Mills produce coated paper in the four major categories cast, gloss, dull and matte.

Collate
To organize printed matter in a specific order as requested.

Color Sequence
Order in which inks are printed. Also called laydown sequence and rotation.

Condition
To keep paper in the pressroom for a few hours or days before printing so that its moisture level and temperature equal that in the pressroom. Also called cure, mature and season.

Crop Marks
Lines near the edges of an image indicating portions to be reproduced. Also called cut marks and tic marks.

Cure
To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings after printing to ensure good adhesion and prevent setoff.

Deboss
To press an image into paper so it lies below the surface. Also called tool.

Deckle Edge
Edge of paper left ragged as it comes from the papermaking machine instead of being cleanly cut. Also called feather edge.

Die
Device for cutting, scoring, stamping, embossing and debossing.

Die Cut
To cut irregular shapes in paper or paperboard using a die.

Drill
In the printing arena, to drill a whole in a printed matter.

Emboss
To press an image into paper so it lies above the surface. Also called cameo and tool.

Engraving
Printing method using a plate, also called a die, with an image cut into its surface.

EPS
Encapsulated Post Script, a known file format usually used to transfer post script information from one program to another.

Estimate
Price that states what a job will probably cost. Also called bid, quotation and tender.

Etch
To use chemicals to carve an image into metal, glass or film.

Fine Papers
Papers made specifically for writing or commercial printing, as compared to coarse papers and industrial papers. Also called cultural papers and graphic papers.

Finish
(1) Surface characteristics of paper. (2) General term for trimming, folding, binding and all other post press operations.

Finished Size
Size of product after production is completed, as compared to flat size. Also called trimmed size.

Flat Size
Size of product after printing and trimming, but before folding, as compared to finished size.

Flood
To print a sheet completely with an ink or varnish. flooding with ink is also called painting the sheet

Flush Cover
Cover trimmed to the same size as inside pages, as compared to overhang cover. Also called cut flush

Foil Emboss
To foil stamp and emboss an image. Also called heat stamp.

Foil Stamp
Method of printing that releases foil from its backing when stamped with the heated die. Also called block print, hot foil stamp and stamp.

Format
Size, style, shape, layout or organization of a layout or printed product.

Four-color Process Printing
Technique of printing that uses black, magenta, cyan and yellow to simulate full-color images. Also called color process printing, full color printing and process printing.

Gilding
Gold leafing the edges of a book or piece of stationery.

Grammage
Basis weight of paper in grams per square meter (gsm).

Graphic Design
Arrangement of type and visual elements along with specifications for paper, ink colors and printing processes that, when combined, convey a visual message.

Gripper Edge
Edge of a sheet held by grippers on a sheetfed press, thus going first through the press. Also called feeding edge and leading edge.

GSM
The unit of measurement for paper weight (grams per square meter).

Head(er)
At the top of a page, the margin

Hickey
Spot or imperfection in printing, most visible in areas of heavy ink coverage, caused by dirt on the plate or blanket. Also called bulls eye and fish eye.

Inserts
Within a publication, an additional item positioned into the publication loose (not bound in).

Intaglio Printing
Printing method whose image carriers are surfaces with two levels, having inked areas lower than noninked areas. Gravure and engraving are the most common forms of intaglio. Also called recess printing.

Laid Finish
Finish on bond or text paper on which grids of parallel lines simulate the surface of handmade paper. Laid lines are close together and run against the grain; chain lines are farther apart and run with the grain.

Landscape
Artist style in which width is greater than height. (Portrait is opposite.)

Leaf
One sheet of paper in a publication. Each side of a leaf is one page.

Letter fold
Two folds creating three panels that allow a sheet of letterhead to fit a business envelope. Also called barrel fold and wrap around fold.

Letter Paper
In North America, 8 1/2' x 11' sheets. In Europe, A4 sheets.

Linen Finish
Embossed finish on text paper that simulates the pattern of linen cloth.

Lithography
Method of printing using plates whose image areas attract ink and whose nonimage areas repel ink. Nonimage areas may be coated with water to repel the oily ink or may have a surface, such as silicon, that repels ink.

Logo (Logotype)
A company, partnership or corporate creation (design) that denotes a unique entity. A possible combination of letters and art work to create a "sole" entity symbol of that specific unit.

Makeready
(1) All activities required to prepare a press or other machine to function for a specific printing or bindery job, as compared to production run. Also called setup. (2) Paper used in the makeready process at any stage in production. Makeready paper is part of waste or spoilage.

Margin
Imprinted space around the edge of the printed material.

Matte Finish
Flat (not glossy) finish on photographic paper or coated printing paper.

Metallic Ink
Ink containing powdered metal or pigments that simulate metal.

Natural Color
Very light brown color of paper. May also be called antique, cream, ivory, off-white or mellow white.

Overprint
To print one image over a previously printed image, such as printing type over a screen tint. Also called surprint.

Page
One side of a leaf in a publication.

Page Count
Total number of pages that a publication has. Also called extent.

Perfect Bind
To bind sheets that have been ground at the spine and are held to the cover by glue. Also called adhesive bind, cut-back bind, glue bind, paper bind, patent bind, perfecting bind, soft bind and soft cover. See also Burst Perfect Bind.

Photoengraving
Engraving done using photochemistry.

Plate
Piece of paper, metal, plastic or rubber carrying an image to be reproduced using a printing press.

PMS
Obsolete reference to Pantone Matching System. The correct trade name of the colors in the Pantone Matching System is Pantone colors, not PMS Colors.

Portrait
An art design in which the height is greater than the width. (Opposite of Landscape.)

Prepress
Camera work, color separations, stripping, platemaking and other prepress functions performed by the printer, separator or a service bureau prior to printing. Also called preparation.

Printing
Any process that transfers to paper or another substrate an image from an original such as a film negative or positive, electronic memory, stencil, die or plate.

Printing Plate
Surface carrying an image to be printed. Quick printing uses paper or plastic plates; letterpress, engraving and commercial lithography use metal plates; flexography uses rubber or soft plastic plates. Gravure printing uses a cylinder. The screen printing is also called a plate.

Proof
Test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, predict results on press and record how a printing job is intended to appear when finished.

Quotation
Price offered by a printer to produce a specific job.

Rag Paper
Stationery or other forms of stock having a strong percentage content of "cotton rags."

Ream
500 sheets of paper.

Recycled Paper
New paper made entirely or in part from old paper.

Register
To place printing properly with regard to the edges of paper and other printing on the same sheet. Such printing is said to be in register.

Register Marks
Cross-hair lines on mechanicals and film that help keep flats, plates, and printing in register. Also called crossmarks and position marks.

Resolution
Sharpness of an image on film, paper, computer screen, disc, tape or other medium.

Saddle Stitch
To bind by stapling sheets together where they fold at the spine, as compared to side stitch. Also called pamphlet stitch, saddle wire and stitch bind.

Score
To compress paper along a straight line so it folds more easily and accurately. Also called crease.

Separated Art
Art with elements that print in the base color on one surface and elements that print in other colors on other surfaces. Also called preseparated art.

Side stitch
To bind by stapling through sheets along, one edge, as compared to saddle stitch. Also called cleat stitch and side wire.

Solid
Any area of the sheet receiving 100 percent ink coverage, as compared to a screen tint.

Spine
Back or binding edge of a publication

Spiral Bind
To bind using a spiral of continuous wire or plastic looped through holes. Also called coil bind.

Spot Color or Varnish
One ink or varnish applied to portions of a sheet, as compared to flood or painted sheet.

Substrate
Any surface or material on which printing is done.

Surprint
Taking an already printed matter and re-printing again on the same.

Thermography
Method of printing using colorless resin powder that takes on the color of underlying ink. Also called raised printing.

Uncoated Paper
Paper that has not been coated with clay. Also called offset paper.

Up
Term to indicate multiple copies of one image printed in one impression on a single sheet. "Two up" or "three up" means printing the identical piece twice or three times on each sheet.

UV Coating
Liquid applied to a printed sheet, then bonded and cured with ultraviolet light.

Varnish
Liquid applied as a coating for protection and appearance.

Virgin Paper
Paper made exclusively of pulp from trees or cotton, as compared to recycled paper.

Waste
Unusable paper or paper damage during normal makeready, printing or binding operations, as compared to spoilage.

Watermark
Translucent logo in paper created during manufacturing by slight embossing from a dandy roll while paper is still approximately 90 percent water.

Window
(1) In a printed product, a die-cut hole revealing an image on the sheet behind it. (2) On a mechanical, an area that has been marked for placement of a piece of artwork.

Woodfree Paper
Made with chemical pulp only. Paper usually classified as calendered or supercalendered.

Wove
Paper manufactured without visible wire marks, usually a fine textured paper.

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